Lost, delayed, damaged, or even stolen luggage can be covered by insurance. For instance, if a common carrier (i.e, airline, cruise ship) loses or delays luggage the insured can be compensated for emergency purchases like clothes and toiletries. It is important to get documentation that the luggage was indeed lost/delayed/stolen and to have receipts for the emergency items purchased.
If credit card travel insurance covers anything, it is usually this type of situation. However, they will only cover expenses not covered by any other insurance policies you may have.